Saturday, 24 January 2015

ELEMENTS/COMPONENTS OF SYSTEM

ELEMENTS / COMPONENTS OF SYSTEM

When we are talking about elements of system, we need to understand, what makes a system? who defines the working environment of a system? Who lets the system to process? and more importantly why to make a system?

System is very important to accomplish any objectives, whether it implies to organization and personal front. we all need to define the level of desire and wants then design an workable plan or procedure after integrating necessary resources. To understand how to make a workable system, lets discuss the elements of a system:-

1. Input
2. Output
3. Process
4. Feedback
5. Environment
6. Boundary

Input:- Input is something which is required to be put in to initiate the process within the system. It is to be noted that when you are designing any series of process to set up an workable system to accomplish organizational objectives, being a custodian of system, we also need to set guidelines the nature of input needs to be enter into the system, so that it can best fits into the architecture or protocols which actually defines the system.

For Example: in order to make calculation easy, calculators had been designed in such a way that user can input the digits with the help of buttons, and calculator as an system interprets that input into the output. That means calculator acts as an system which had defined its input system. This acts as a source of communication between the user and the system itself. It is also very important to any user to understand what needs to be enter to get the desired result. It depends upon types of systems, because without the right input, no system can process and deliver the desired results. For example:- when we desire to highlight any word in MS-WORD, you kept on clicking on Bold Link, but you will not get the desired result, until you inform the MS-WORD which letters/Sentence you would like to highlight. For achieving above, we first need to select the word/sentences, then you command the MS-WORD as a system to highlight as BOLD, by clicking the bold link, and you shall get the desired result.



Conclusion:- Output is directly linked to what you are using as an input.

Output:- Output is something which is the outcome of a system and produced by machine and by a person. For manufacturing industry, a goods or a product can be called as an output and for service industry, a feeling or sense of satisfaction or promise can be called as an output. Like Insurance and telecommunication network which cannot be seen but can be felt.

Industrialist and marketers are designing and developing products to meet the demands of various segments of customers and doing business after exchanging value in a given price, that we know as a transaction. 

Example:- 

Manufacturing Sector:- if any manufacturing firm wants to sell a quality product without compromising any aspects of a product, obviously, company is developing for those customers who only wants quality and ready to pay for it. Like Apple, Mercedes and BMW etc. But there are many manufacturers who design their system to target masses, like Maruti, Micromax and Samsung etc.

Conclusion:- Depending upon the target customers,nature of product value, and level of customer satisfaction, input has to be chosen and a system can be developed accordingly, so that once the chosen input enters into the system, it must delivers the desired output.

Service Sector:-  In service sector, firms always try to match the customer needs and design their products around the customers will and wants. When being a customer, we use any services, what we actually notice? We notice, the level of satisfaction and utility. We buy Mobile, so that we can make and receive calls on the go but without the telecommunication carrier, we cannot do so. That means to use a mobile phone, we have to have a service provider which can provide us a network wherein a call can be made and received by the user. Now what makes you satisfied and gives you a sense of delighted? Answer is when you will get uninterrupted service network with excellent voice quality, transparent billing system and Customer support. But when you experience poor voice quality, call drops and poor customer support, it gives you a sense of dis-satisfaction and you look for a different service providers. 

That is why you shall find various competitors in the market, offering similar services and trying hard to maintain the quality of services to retain their existing customers, and with the help of satisfied customers, they are also trying the add new customers in their system aura to counter competitors.

Now question arises, how to make a customer satisfied that is the ultimate objective for the telecommunication and any service industry. It is adequate numbers of proper infrastructural setup like towers and machinery with service orientation business setup(process and resources) that can be integrated to deliver quality service to the customer.

Conclusion:- Without proper input system like machines and network infrastructure, even effective system/process cannot accomplish objectives/output.


Process:- Process is a series of action which is required to achieve end results with the help of various resources like input, Humans, Land, machinery, Capital, Fuel and Energy etc. It is to be noted that process can be different and resources may vary on the basis of end results/Output.

Example:-  Software is developed with the help of programmes and to cater the need of target users. That means we can say a software is a series of action which acts when a right input is given and generates desired output on the basis of input given to the software. But software cannot be used without the help of computer machine and humans. 


Feedback:- Feedback is a process of identifying the reaction of a user of any product, service and also can be used to asses the performance. It is very important tool to know the health of a input, process and output elements and paves the way of improving / upgrading or rectifying the loopholes in the above, so that organizational and individual vision, mission, long term and short term objectives can be satisfied within the stipulated time frame without hammering the interests of all the stakeholders involves around your business.

Feedback can be of two types: Negative and Positive Feedback.

Negative Feedback:-  Negative feedback arises when the end result is not satisfying the objectives of the organization and may cause serious damage to the reputation and business operation.

Positive Feedback:- Positive Feedback arises when the end results are matching the standard outcome as per the organizational vision and mission.

Conclusion:- An outcome could be the quality product, Quality Service and Customer Satisfaction, to measure above, there are various parameters, which a company has to develop and make a action plan in Input and Process system and ensure all the resources engaged in the system process, should accomplish objectives. With the help of Feedback system, the objectivity of system can be measured and needful should be done in the entire architecture of system/Process or input can be changed or a new variable can be added. That means using all provision to make a effective and efficient system that could achieve end results in any ways.


Environment- Environment is something which can is directly linked to the operation of system process, types of inputs to be used and to align output to satisfy the needs and to compete in the market.  

Environment can change the entire ABCD of any set targets because of various environment factors like change in Technology, Change in the demography characteristics, change in law and taxation, change in the economy and political issues etc. Being a system, we need to align ourselves with the above forces and keep on upgrading the dynamics of company's role and end results.

For Example:- There could be many examples of environment effects that changed the entire dynamics of the company's setup like Nokia (2013-14) who has to shut its operation in India due to the immense technological competition from Samsung, Sony, Micromax, Apple, Xioami, Lava, Xolo etc who are selling android and iOS based mobile phones and Nokia was trying to differentiate itself with Microsoft Windows 8 operating system, that failed somehow to win the hearts of Indian customers.


Boundary:- When we talk about the process which is a series of actions which are aligned to achieve the end results.That means there are countless resources working towards the goal and not a single resource alone can accomplish the goals effectively and efficiently. In order to have a effective and efficient system, we need to define the limits of operations/ limits of fields where the entire system can be divided into departments to accomplish the goals using the every bits of system resources.

It is very important to understand the boundary of any system otherwise people will tend to interfere with others fields of operations and often gets confused, that will hammer the end results.

For Example:- If a company wants to start only e-commerce site and to sell fashion products, that means he needs to design an virtual market place with an artificially made online shopping helper to sell only fashion products over the e-commerce website and its entire marketing approach would be only around targeted customers. If you will not limit the area of operation or defines the limits of market, you will face problems in achieving end result.Like Jabong and Myntra who are into the fashion products, selling over the e-commerce platform.  But there are many players like flipkart and snapdeal who are gradually incorporating new portfolio's of products under their names. You also need to understand that if you want to extend your area of operations and wants to deals with many SBU's, like flipkart, snapdeal and HUL, a necessary provision like addition resources/new process needs to be deployed to run the entire show effectively and efficiently.